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The Women of the Bible Speak: The Wisdom of 16 Women and Their Lessons for Today (European Society of Cardiology)

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The opera Salome by Richard Strauss was highly controversial when first composed due to its combination of biblical theme, eroticism and murder. [153] The story of her dance before Herod with the head of John the Baptist on a silver platter led medieval Christian artists to depict her as the personification of the lascivious woman, a temptress who lures men away from salvation. [154] Strauss' opera is based upon Oscar Wilde's play Salome which depicts her in the role of femme fatale. [155] This biblical story has long been a favorite of painters as well. Notable representations of Salome include Masolino da Panicale, Filippo Lippi, Benozzo Gozzoli, Leonardo da Vinci followers Andrea Solario and Bernardino Luini, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Titian, Caravaggio, Guido Reni, Fabritius, Henri Regnault, Georges Rochegrosse, Gustave Moreau, Lovis Corinth and Federico Beltran-Masses. When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Jesus said to her, “Will you give me a drink?” ( E) 8 (His disciples had gone into the town ( F) to buy food.)

In the West, the status of Egyptian women was high, and their legal rights approached equality with men throughout the last three millennia BCE. [7] :5–6 A few women even ruled as pharaohs. [7] :7 However, historian Sarah Pomeroy explains that even in those ancient patriarchal societies where a woman could occasionally become queen, her position did not empower her female subjects. [8] :x Main article: Eve Creation of Eve, marble relief by Lorenzo Maitani, Orvieto Cathedral, Italy, c. 1300 Now the rulers of the Philistines assembled to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to celebrate, saying, "Our god has delivered Samson, our enemy, into our hands." And they brought Samson out to entertain each other. But Samson prayed, "O Lord, remember me" and he pushed the columns holding up the Temple and killed everyone there. a b Keener, Craig S. (2009). Paul, Women, and Wives: Marriage and Women's Ministry in the Letters of Paul. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrikson Publishers Inc. ISBN 978-0-943575-96-4. a b c d Hauptman, Judith (2005). "Women". In Blumenthal, Jacob; Liss, Janet L. (eds.). Etz Hayim Study Companion. New York: The Jewish Publications Society. ISBN 978-0-82760-822-1.Burney, Charles (2018). Historical Dictionary of the Hittites (Seconded.). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ISBN 978-1-53810-257-2.

Ehrman, Bart D. (2006). Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530013-0. OCLC 918205375. In the King James translation these verses read as "Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you. But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head. But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. The Gospel of Philip Annotated & Explained. SkyLight Paths Publishing. 2005. p.36. ISBN 978-1-59473-111-2.There has been substantial agreement for over one hundred years, among a wide variety of scholars, that the Hebrew Bible is a predominantly patriarchal document from a patriarchal age. New Testament scholar Ben Witherington III says it "limited women's roles and functions to the home, and severely restricted: (1) their rights of inheritance, (2) their choice of relationship, (3) their ability to pursue a religious education or fully participate in a synagogue, and (4) limited their freedom of movement." [34] Recent scholarship is calling some aspects of this into question. Ananias and his wife Sapphira were, according to the Acts of the Apostles chapter 5, members of the early Christian church in Jerusalem. The account records their sudden deaths after lying about money.

New Testament scholar Mary Ann Getty-Sullivan says Mary Magdalene, or Mary from the town of Magdala, is sometimes "erroneously identified as the sinner who anointed Jesus according to Luke's description in Luke 7:36–50. She is at times also confused with Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus (John 12:1–8)", and is sometimes assumed to be the woman caught in adultery (John 7:53–8:11), though there is nothing in the text to indicate that. Luke qualifies her as "one who was healed" but otherwise little is known about her. There is nothing to directly indicate Mary Magdalene was a former prostitute, and some scholars believe she was a woman of means who helped support Jesus and his ministry. [135] :183–187 See also: Women in Judaism The Construction of Noah's Ark depicts the eight people said to be on the ark, including the four wives, who are all unnamed in the Book of Genesis. Jacopo Bassano, 16th century. a b Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191517532. OCLC 929408500.a b Meyers, Carol (1988). Discovering Eve: Ancient Israelite Women in Context. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195049343. OCLC 242712170. Witte, John Jr. (1997). From Sacrament to Contract Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664255435. Richardson, Peter (25 June 2016). "Book Review: Margaret MacDonald. Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion: The Power of the Hysterical Woman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996". Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses. 27 (2): 214–215. doi: 10.1177/000842989802700210. S2CID 151446199. Ruth is the title character of the Book of Ruth. In the narrative, she is not an Israelite but rather is from Moab; she marries an Israelite. Both her husband and her father-in-law die, and she helps her mother-in-law, Naomi, find protection. The two of them travel to Bethlehem together, where Ruth wins the love of Boaz through her kindness. [83]

Odell-Scott, D.W. "Editorial dilemma: the interpolation of 1 Cor 14:34–35 in the western manuscripts of D, G and 88." Web: 15 Jul 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0LAL/is_2_30/ai_94332323/ Tetlow, Elizabeth M. "The Status of Women in Greek, Roman and Jewish Society by Elisabeth M Tetlow from 'Women and Ministry in the New Testament' ". www.womenpriests.org . Retrieved 11 November 2018. Younger, John (2005). Sex in the Ancient World from A to Z. New York: Routledge. p.106. ISBN 978-0-415-24252-3. Talmudic scholar Judith Hauptman says marriage and family law in the Bible favored men over women. For example, a husband could divorce a wife if he chose to, but a wife could not divorce a husband without his consent. The law said a woman could not make a binding vow without the consent of her male authority, so she could not legally marry without male approval. The practice of levirate marriage applied to widows of childless deceased husbands, not to widowers of childless deceased wives. If either he or she did not consent to the marriage, a different ceremony called chalitza was done instead; this involves the widow removing her brother-in-law's shoe, spitting in front of him, and proclaiming, "This is what happens to someone who will not build his brother's house!". [43] :163 Paul the Apostle was the first writer to give ecclesiastical directives about the role of women in the church. Some of these are now heavily disputed. There are also arguments that some of the writings attributed to Paul are pseudepigraphal post-Pauline interpolations. [144] Scholars agree certain texts attributed to Paul and the Pauline epistles have provided much support for the view of the role of women as subservient. [145] :22–34 [101] [132] Others have claimed culture has imposed a particular translation upon his texts that Paul did not actually support. [101] :80–97 1 Corinthians 14:34–35 [ edit ]The man took Jesus at his word and departed. 51 While he was still on the way, his servants met him with the news that his boy was living. 52 When he inquired as to the time when his son got better, they said to him, “Yesterday, at one in the afternoon, the fever left him.” Weren, Wim J. C. (1997). "The Five Women in Matthew's Genealogy". The Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 59 (2): 288–305. JSTOR 43722942. George Frideric Handel composed a series of dramatic oratorios in English on Biblical themes. Among those with major roles for notable women from the Bible are Esther, [156] composed for private performance in a nobleman's home in 1718, revised into a full oratorio in 1732, Deborah, first performed at the King's Theatre in London on 17 March 1733, [157] Athalia, first performed on 10 July 1733 at the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, [158] Samson, [159] premiere performance at Covent Garden theatre in London on 18 February 1743, and Jephtha, [160] premiered at Covent Garden on 26 February 1752. Harper, Kyle (2011). Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275–425. Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511973451. ISBN 978-0-521-19

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